Vicinity of the city
Kyzikos ruins bandırma-erdek road 10. It’s miles placed at km. The town turned into installed on the junction of the kapıdağ peninsula with the anatolian coast. It’s miles one of the most essential city facilities of antiquity. In herodotus ‘ works, it passes along with artake and proconnesos because the third city kingdom established inside the region. The city kingdom of kyzikos turned into partially installed in the antique years on the inexperienced foothills of a high mountain referred to as arkton oros. One arm embraces the blue sea of bandırma bay with its historical name panormos; the other arm embraces the illuminated waters of the gulf of artake (erdek) from the west.
It’s miles known that the oldest communities settled within the area of erdek are dolions, whose call is mysia in ancient times, scattered at the southern foothills of kapıdağ peninsula. The geographer strabon defined in his works that the dolions migrated from the thessalia place of greece. In his work, strabon describes the metropolis of kyzikos as follows: “kyzikos is an island in propontis (sea of marmara) and is connected to the mainland through bridges. Its territory is fertile. Close to the bridges is a town with ports of the equal call that may be closed if important and a refuge large sufficient to take greater than two hundred ships. Part of the town is on the obvious and the other component is close to the mountain called arkton oros. At the back of this mountain is any other mountain referred to as dindymos. Growing as a unmarried peak, this mountain incorporates the temple of dindymene, the “mom of the gods”, constructed by means of the argonauts. The town competes with the maximum outstanding cities in asia with its size, beauty, and excellence of both peace and wartime rule, and is prepared within the fashion of rhodes, massalia and ancient karthago. There are 3 administrators engaged inside the control of three publicly owned structures. These structures protected treasure, weapons, and conflict machines, and grain. For the duration of the roman duration, the town become able to preserve its inner independence.”
King kyzikos and his spouse kleite
In mythology, kyzikos, the young king of the dolions named in the famous argonauts saga of the greeks, is stated to be a hero from thessaly. Kyzikos at first passes as southern greek. He was the son of aineus, son of stilbe, and ainete, daughter of king eusoros of thrace. Eusoros ‘ son turned into akamas, who commanded the thracian contingent that fought in opposition to the greeks on the behest of the troians. Kyzikos was the ruler of the dolionis, whose soyca roots have been based on poseidon. On the time of the argonauts ‘ arrival into legend, the seer had simply married kleite, the daughter of merops.
History of the town
The town and its locality, named after kyzikos, were colonized by way of miletosians two times in 749 and 680 bc. This 2nd colonization of kyzikos, along side the antique metropolis of artake, positioned at the web site of present day town of erdek, covers the reigning years of king gyges, which opened the most glorious period of the lydian state.
The city of kyzikos marked a completely shiny length in the field of architecture and artwork, specially inside the hellenistic period in 334 – 330 bc and once more in the roman duration. The palaces, palace decorations, temples to the gods of the length, tomb decorations, column heads, bridges and aqueducts are magnificent, as are the kyzikos sculptors who mastered the marbles extracted from proconnesos. The temple of hadrianus in kyzikos, which is named as the 8th surprise of the world, was found out by means of architects of kyzikos on behalf of emperor hadrianus.
The metropolis of kyzikos is an vital settlement that still sheds mild on records inside the fields of technology and subculture. He turned into delivered up in famous thinkers, mathematicians, astronomy students, famous historians and literati, as well as the well-known geographer and marine scientist explorer eudeksos* kyzikos of the duration.
The kyzikos region modified arms and came underneath different dominions, starting from historical times to the ottomans. Those are dollion, thrak, macedonian, lydia, persian, sparta, peloponnesos, phyrig, roman and byzantine civilizations. Especially underneath roman rule the town become an crucial center in many fields. However after the roman cut up into , the city, which remained underneath eastern roman rule, steadily started out to lose its importance. Because of the assaults and earthquakes by using the arabs who desired to take the capital constantinople, the town became badly damaged. Finally in 1339, orhan ghazi’s son süleyman pasha captured the vicinity inside the first rumeli expedition.
- eudoksos: ii bc. He became a century-vintage sailor and explorer from kyzikos. He’s considered the primary individual to set out from the mediterranean and try and circumnavigate africa. Ptolemaios viii. He became tasked by euergetes with finding the ocean direction to india. On her second attempt, on her manner from gades, her deliver ran aground off morocco. After coping with to waft his ship, he endured on his way down the west coast of africa but did not go back. Later xv. By way of the give up of the century no one had tried to get down from the southern give up of africa.
One of the first nations wherein the argonauts set out from greece to obtain the golden fleece, which existed in kolkhis (georgia), turned into king kyzikos ‘ u . S . A .. Kyzikos had welcomed the sailors with a smile. He organized feasts for them and offered them rations. However while night time came, the argonauts had been thrown back to shore, wherein they were unwittingly separated by means of a typhoon after they sailed. The dolionis concept they had been being raided by means of pirates and started a collision with the argonauts. Kyzikos got here to his aspect and became killed with the aid of iason, the leader of the argonauts. The following morning, anyone realized the mistake he become making. The argonauts burned lament over the king’s body for 3 days. They then held a massive funeral in which greek-style athletics video games were held. Upon his demise, king kyzikos ‘ younger spouse kleite hanged herself for her pain and ended her life. The city in which kyzikos reigned now got here to be referred to as via his name.
Excavations at yzikos
Considering 2006, he has served as the head of the excavation of kyzikos within the archaeology department of erzurum atatürk university. Dr. Nurettin koçhan conducts. Excavations have revealed that the metropolis changed into surrounded with the aid of fortification partitions and these walls had been strengthened in particular throughout the roman duration. To the north of the town agreement became the acropolis, the very best place within the metropolis. To the south of the city was an agora; again to the south was metron, a sanctuary. Bouleterion, one of the administrative structures of the metropolis, turned into also located to the southeast of the town agreement. The necropolis, the burial web site, become positioned to the south and greater densely to the west of the metropolis. A huge amphitheater had been constructed out of doors the metropolis’s fortification walls. The bearing ft of this structure have been destroyed and have survived to the cutting-edge.
Temple of hadrianus
Kyzikos hadrianus temple ms i. It become built in the call of jupiter (zeus) inside the century, however its creation persisted for a long term. An earthquake inside the city in 117 advert caused the destruction of the temple, which continues to be below production, amongst other systems. The construction changed into resumed with the economic help of the roman emperor hadrianus, who got here to kyzikos during his ride to anatolia in 124 advert. Due to its monetary aid, it may also be stated that the temple become committed to emperor hadrianus. Accordingly, kyzikos have become one of the towns in anatolia that constructed an emperor temple after smyrna, pergamon and ephesos. Ms. 4. In the century, socrates used the statue of hadrianus, located inside the temple sella, in the 13th century of olympos. He commemorates him as his god. As a consequence hadrianus became succeeded by means of the kyzikosians at the 13th. He became referred to as the god of olympos, and kyzikos became venerated with the identify of a neokoria (the metropolis that built a temple within the call of the emperor).
About the outlet of the temple in 167 advert, the truth seeker aristides in his speech on the agora, positioned just north of the temple, said, “the sailors had previously checked out the shapes of the mountains and separated the islands. Now your temple has replaced the mountains. Your town is the most effective metropolis that publications the sailors without the want for lanterns and signal flags,” he said, stressing the honor of the temple. Aristeides also states that the inscription on the pediment of the temple shows that the shape turned into committed to hadrianus.
First information of the temple, advert 2. We get it from the century-antique scolast lucianus. The temple of hadrianus, which was notion to had been built beneath the supervision of the architect aristeinatos with eight×16 columns, with a dipteros plan (the part used because the sanctuary of the temple, fashioned by using masking the naos around with columns, a form of plan from greek structure), was constructed on seven vaults inside the corinthian order, extending east-west, but these days best 3 of the vaults the roman historian cassius dio wrote approximately the temple of hadrianus, which turned into greatly broken in the second earthquake in a hundred and fifty five advert, “the fairest of the present systems”
And its largest temple has been demolished, ” he says. The broken temple changed into repaired and reused in 167 ad. After the discharge of christianity and the prohibition of the pagan religion, the temple turned into abandoned to its destiny. After that, the destruction of the temple has commenced. Except the natural destruction, there are also the destruction of mankind because the middle a long time. The metropolis, which has confronted a huge style of earthquakes for the duration of its history, dates lower back to six ad. In the middle of the century, constantinople, the capital of the jap roman empire, misplaced its significance due to its political and business prominence.
An essential feature of the temple of hadrianus is its dimensions. The temple has an east-west length of 116.23 meters and is one among the largest anatolian temples of the roman length with those dimensions. It is also the constructing with the largest size column head of the roman length to date. This corinthian head decorated with akhantus (artichoke) leaves is 1.90 meters in diameter and 2.50 meters in size.